From 11th Century Until Early 21st – Spain

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Time Travel




Decadence of the Muslims started in 11th century, when the various Arabian noble families were more and more at variance among themselves, and al-Andalus broke into numerous small caliphates.

At the same time, the north and centre of Spain was back under Christian control. During this period of the re-taking of Spain, the union of the Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of Aragon (the most important norther Christian kingdoms), through the marriage in 1469 of Queen Isabella I and King Ferdinand II, led to the creation of the Kingdom of Spain.

During almost 30 years the Muslims rapidly lost territory, until they were definitely expelled when they lost Granada, the last Moorish kingdom, in 1492.

By 1512 the unification of present-day Spain was complete.

During the reign of Isabel and Ferdinand, the Canary Islands became part of Spanish territory (1495), the hegemony of Spain in the Mediterranean, to the detriment of France, was affirmed with the conquest of the Kingdom of Naples, and Navarre was incorporated into the Kingdom.

Also, their effort to “re-christianize” Spain resulted in the Spanish Inquisition, when thousands of Jews and Moors who didn’t want to convert to Christianism were expelled or killed.

Torquemada, the most notorious of the grand inquisitors, epitomized the Inquisition’s harshness and cruelty.

The year 1492 was also epochal as the year that Ferdinand and Isabella sent Christopher Columbus, an Italian explorer, across the Atlantic Ocean in search of a new trade route to Asia.

In the era of exploration, discovery, and colonization, Spain amassed tremendous wealth and a vast colonial empire through the conquest of Mexico by Cortés and Peru by Pizarro.

During these next three hundred years, Spain was prospering economically thanks to the trade with its American colonies.

Spain’s colonial empire covered almost all of South America, large portions of North America, the Philippines in Asia, and portions of coastal Africa—it was one of the largest empires in the history of the world.

However, at the same time, Spain was involved in wars with France, the Netherlands and England, culminating in the disastrous defeat of the “Invincible Armada” in 1588.

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) resulted in Spain’s loss of Belgium, Luxembourg, Milan, Sardinia, and Naples.

Its colonial empire in the Americas and the Philippines vanished in wars and revolutions during the 18th and 19th centuries.

That epoch also marked the end of the dynasty of the Habsburgs and the coming of the Bourbons.

With the accession of the Bourbon dynasty to the Spanish throne at the beginning of the 18th century, Spain came within the French sphere of influence for the following 100 years, up to the defeat of Napoleon’s army during the Peninsular War.

In 1808 Joseph Bonaparte was installed on the Spanish throne, following the Napoleonic invasion to the peninsula.

After Napoleon’s definite defeat at Waterloo in 1815, Ferdinand VII was restored to the Spanish throne and reigned with rigid absolutism.

When Ferdinand VII changed the law of succession to the throne and his daughter Isabel was established as queen, his brother Charles rebelled against it and War of Seven Years broke out.

Economical recession and political instability were the consequences, Spain lost its colonies with the exceptions of Puerto Rico, Cuba and Philippines.

The revolution of 1868 forced Isabel II. to renounce to the throne, and the First Republic was proclaimed.

Anyhow, it lasted for just about one year. After a coup d’état Isabel’s son, Alphonse XII., restored the kingdom.

The 20th century began with little peace; Spain played a minor part in the scramble for Africa, with the colonization of Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco and Equatorial Guinea.

However the area assigned to Spain was mostly abrupt terrain populated by warlike tribesmen.

A poorly planned advance into the interior due to political pressure led to military disaster in Morocco in 1921.

The economical crisis of the early 1920s led the country to the brink of civil war.

In World War I, under Franco, Spain was neutral though sympathetic to the Axis. In 1923, General Primo de Ribera established a military dictature until 1930.

In 1930, King Alfonso XIII revoked the dictatorship, but elections in 1931 saw a triumph for the political left, and Alphonse XIII. left the country.

The elections held in 1936 returned a strong Popular Front majority, with Manuel Azaña as president.

Three years later the Nationalist forces, led by General Francisco Franco, emerged victorious with the support of Germany and Italy.

They received extensive support from Nazi-Germany and fascist Italy and succeeded against the Republican block which was officially supported only by Russia, by many intellectuals (as Ernest Hemingway) and by some International Brigades.

In a referendum in 1947, the Spanish people approved a Franco-drafted succession law declaring Spain a monarchy again.

Franco, however, continued as chief of state. During the 1950s and 60s every effort was taken to improve international relations, and the country’s economy recovered.

In 1969 Franco proclaimed Juan Carlos de Borbon, the grandson of Alphonse XIII., his successor with the title of king. Franco died on Nov. 20, 1975, and Juan Carlos was proclaimed king on Nov. 22.

With the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the arrival of democracy, were given some political autonomy, which was then soon extended to all Spanish regions.

In 1982, the Spanish Socialist Worker’s Party (PSOE) came to power and played a crucial role leading the country down the road to Community membership.

The subsequent general elections of 1986, 1989 and 1993 were also won by the Spanish Socialist Party and consolidated the the position of the Popular Party, led by Jose Maria Aznar, as the second largest political force in the country.

In the Basque Country, moderate Basque nationalism coexists with radical nationalism supportive of the terrorist group ETA.

Between 1980 and 1982, the regions of Catalonia, the Basque Country, Galicia and Andalusia approved statutes for their own self-government and elected their respective parliaments.

In 1985, Spain became member of the NATO and entered the European Community in 1986.

In 1992 it appeared impressively at the world stage: Barcelona hosted the Olympic Games, Seville the world exposition EXPO’92, and Madrid was declared European Cultural Capital.

General elections in March 1996 produced a victory for the conservative Popular Party, and its leader, José María Aznar, became prime minister.

He and his party easily won reelection in 2000. On January 1, 1999 Spain adopted the Euro as its national currency.


Cheap Airfare

Cheap Airfare For Travel Vacation

Traveling is the most expensive part in planning any holiday vacation. No matter what the reason, everyone needs to use air travel at some point and for many it is a great expense and worry due to the high prices and associated costs of flying.

Finding discount air travel can be one of the best ways that you can manage to get a cheaper trip.

Cheap flights are becoming a much sought after commodity and people are beginning to find many different places where it is possible to find affordable cheap flights without a lot of hassle, time and effort.

Many people who wish to travel cheap will want to go online and offline to find the best deals on their desired tickets.

There are many resources appearing now which are able to find cheap flights and compare many different routes and airlines so that you can be provided with the details of the best offers.


The invention of the Web portals plays an important role in promoting cheap airfare from websites.

There are times where you can find good deals through online airline ticket purchase especially you are buying from low cost or budget airlines.

Applying some useful tricks while buying your airline tickets, you can save a lot.

Various web portals give you easy access to information, so that you can become familiar with various travel sites dealing with airlines and airline tickets.

There are travel sites which claim to be the lowest fare, but you never know until you look around, and surfing the Internet for the best price may take some time, and time is money.

Internet has become the most significant revolution in the tourism industry with the advent of commercial air traffic.

It has been seen that you can get cheap flights from website, in case you book your airline tickets late night and early morning hours.

There can be some great airline deals to be found during off peak hours. Follow the trick to book your cheap airfare during weekdays.

Weekdays may cost you much cheaper instead of weekends. Prices can skyrocket unexpectedly, therefore it will cost you cheap if you’re willing to fly on Saturday and return on Monday, than if you need to leave on Friday and return on Sunday.

Generally on online travel sites you can book you airline tickets along with your complete information about your destination like about your desired location, destination weather, perfect time to visit, tourist attraction, accommodations, entertainment places and when and where should you go in your destination.

One of the easiest places you should search is the major airline websites. One can come across cheap airfare online if they desire to break their flight journey.

Most of the times it is more expensive to buy a direct flight than to buy a flight that stops one or two (or even three) times on the way. Such issues have been seen while using an online travel or flight agency.

Various airlines display information about inexpensive flights offer on their websites depending on the season, destinations and departures.

Browsing and comparing various cheap flights from websites ensures a traveler to get the best deal available.

Don’t forget to take advantage of airline miles from credit cards and other rewards programs to pay for your flights.
When planning a business trip or family vacation, using a well-educated travel agency is an extremely helpful way to book your getaway without any stress. However, not just any agency will get the job done efficiently.

You will want to invest with one that has a reputation for getting the job done and going the extra mile for their customers.

This means you may need to do some homework in order to verify that any agency you do business with is in fact a reputable one.

Here are some basic tips on how to pick the best travel agency for you.



When considering a travel agency in which to do business with, longevity is a factor in which to keep in mind.

While being in business for twenty years does not guarantee the agency is the best in the area, it does indicate they have enough going for them to stay in business.

Avoid any travel agency that is not at least a couple years old, unless you know the owners and staff very well.

Building a good reputation takes time. The new kids on the block may be excellent, but they may not be worth the risk of using to plan that once-in-a-lifetime vacation that you want to go perfectly.

Local Presence

Along with longevity, it is a good idea to see what ties the agency has to the local business community.

A good place to begin looking is with your local Chamber of Commerce, or other business association.

In comparison with businesses of all types, a travel agency that tends to be community minded and customer-centric is very likely to take part in the events around town in some manner.

Membership in local business clubs and organizations is a good sign the agency is serious about what it does, which is exactly what you want.


References are always an excellent indicator of whether or not a travel agency has a good reputation.

Toss the name of the agency out to your co-workers, friends, neighbors and other acquaintances around town.

There is a good chance someone has either dealt with the agency or knows someone who did.

Make sure to speak directly to the source rather than attempt to obtain opinions through a third party.

It is too easy for something important to be left out or misunderstood as the information goes through several people.

Customer Care

Drop in at the agency and see how they deal with potential customers who wander in off the street.

If you are greeted with a friendly smile, invited to come in and sit, or offered a cup of coffee, you can learn a lot about the business model and integrity that the agency holds.

It would be worth your while to investigate a little further.

Asking Questions

The type of questions asked by the agent is also a good way to judge the reliability and reputation of the agency.

When small details such as preferences in room types, accommodations for any allergies you may have, and preferences in the mode of travel are mentioned by the agent, you know they really do want to design a travel package that is to your liking.

An agency with more interest in collecting your hard-earned money will simply lay out a few generic package deals and invite you to choose one.

Go with the agency that will take the time to customize your travel plans to suit your needs.

Always ask questions regarding matters such as up front deposits on packages, payment terms, customer support during your trip, and the ability to change your travel plans in the event of an emergency.

Reputable agencies will provide straightforward answers to these types of queries and not attempt to use fifty words when a one word answer will do.

While you receive these answers, notice whether or not the agent is looking you in the eye.

People who are not afraid to face you squarely when they talk are much more likely to be ethical, honest, and in general very reliable.

Other Factors

While price is not necessarily a factor when it comes to determining if an agency is reputable or not, beware of any agency that trots out the issue of cost and waves it like a red flag.

It is perfectly permissible for the agent to ask you regarding how much you would like to spend for the trip, but it is not a good sign if he or she begins to wave discounted packages in your face before getting any solid ideas of what you want.

Choosing a reputable travel agency is a combination of assessing their standing in the community in terms of what others think, along with your own personal impressions of the agents when you make that first critical contact.

Keep in mind your first impression is likely to be the right one.

If you do not feel good about the meeting, then continue your search for the best travel agency.